Reading list: Effects of race on life outcomes in the U.S.

A working list (please comment below with suggested additions).

Inclusion criteria: Studies that investigated causal impacts on real world outcomes or close proxies of those outcomes, in a highly naturalistic or field setting.



Hagiwara, Nao, Louis A. Penner, Richard Gonzalez, Susan Eggly, John F. Dovidio, Samuel L. Gaertner, Tessa West, and Terrance L. Albrecht. "Racial Attitudes, Physician–patient Talk Time Ratio, and Adherence in Racially Discordant Medical Interactions." Social Science & Medicine 87 (2013): 123-31.


Green, Alexander R., Dana R. Carney, Daniel J. Pallin, Long H. Ngo, Kristal L. Raymond, Lisa I. Iezzoni, and Mahzarin R. Banaji. "Implicit Bias among Physicians and Its Prediction of Thrombolysis Decisions for Black and White Patients." Journal of General Internal Medicine 22 (2007): 1231-238.


Douglas, Almond, Hilary W. Hoynes and Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach. "Inside The War On Poverty: The Impact Of Food Stamps On Birth Outcomes." The Review of Economics and Statistics 93, no. 2 (2011): 387-403.


David M. Cutler, Roland G. Fryer, Jr., and Edward L. Glaeser. “Racial Differences in Life Expectancy: The Impact of Salt, Slavery, and Selection.” unpublished manuscript, Harvard University and NBER, March 1, 2005; and Katherine M. Barghaus.


Noymer, Andrew, Andrew M. Penner, Aliya Saperstein, and Cécile Viboud. "Cause of Death Affects Racial Classification on Death Certificates." PLoS ONE 6, no. 1 (2011): E15812.


Criminal justice


Eberhardt, Jennifer L., Phillip Atiba Goff, Valerie J. Purdie-Vaughns, and Paul G. Davies. "Seeing Black: Race, Crime, And Visual Processing.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87, no. 6 (2004): 876-93.


Eberhardt, Jennifer L., Paul G. Davies, Valerie J. Purdie-Vaughns, and Sheri Lynn Johnson. "Looking Deathworthy. Perceived Stereotypicality Of Black Defendants Predicts Capital-Sentencing Outcomes." Psychological Science 17, no. 5 (2006): 383-86.


Correll, Joshua, Bernadette Park, Charles M. Judd, and Bernd Wittenbrink. "The Police Officer's Dilemma: Using Ethnicity To Disambiguate Potentially Threatening Individuals."Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83, no. 6 (2002): 1314-329.


Correll, Joshua, Bernadette Park, Charles M. Judd, Bernd Wittenbrink, Melody S. Sadler, and Tracie Keesee. "Across The Thin Blue Line: Police Officers And Racial Bias In The Decision To Shoot." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92, no. 6 (2007): 1006-023.


Donohue, John J., III, and Steven D. Levitt. "The Impact of Race on Policing and Arrests."The Journal of Law and Economics 44, no. 2 (2001): 367-94.


Goff, Phillip Atiba, Matthew C. Jackson, Brooke A. L Di Leone, Carmen M. Culotta, and Natalie A. DiTomasso. "The Essence of Innocence: Consequences of Dehumanizing Black Children." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 106, no. 4 (2014): 526-45.


Saperstein, Aliya, and Andrew M. Penner. "The Race Of A Criminal Record: How Incarceration Colors Racial Perceptions." Social Problems 57, no. 1 (2010): 92-113.




Bertrand, Marianne, and Sendhil Mullainathan. "Are Emily And Greg More Employable Than Lakisha And Jamal? A Field Experiment On Labor Market Discrimination." American Economic Review 94, no. 4 (2004): 991-1013.


Pager, Devah. "The Mark Of A Criminal Record." American Journal of Sociology 108, no. 5 (2003): 937-75.


Barron, Laura G., Michelle Hebl, and Eden B. King. "Effects of manifest ethnic identification on employment discrimination." Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 17, no. 1 (2011): 23.


Milkman, Katherine L., Modupe Akinola, and Dolly Chugh. "What Happens Before? A Field Experiment Exploring How Pay and Representation Differentially Shape Bias on the Pathway into Organizations." A Field Experiment Exploring How Pay and Representation Differentially Shape Bias on the Pathway into Organizations (April 23, 2014) (2014).




Ondrich, Jan, Stephen Ross, and John Yinger. "Now You See It, Now You Don't: Why Do Real Estate Agents Withhold Available Houses from Black Customers?" Review of Economics and Statistics 85, no. 4 (2003): 854-73.


Pager, Devah, Bruce Western, and Bart Bonikowski. "Discrimination In A Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment." American Sociological Review 74, no. 5 (2009): 777-99.


Heckman, James J. and Peter Siegelman, “The Urban Institute Audit Studies: Their Methods and Findings,” in Michael Fix and Raymond J. Struyk, Clear and Convincing Evidence: Measurement of Discrimination in America, Lanham, MD: Urban Institute Press, 1992.




Steele, Claude M. "A Threat In The Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity And Performance." American Psychologist 52 (1997): 613-29.


Walton, Gregory M., and Geoffrey L. Cohen. "A Brief Social-Belonging Intervention Improves Academic and Health Outcomes of Minority Students." Science 331, no. 6023 (2011): 1447-451.


Sharkey, Patrick. "The Acute Effect of Local Homicides on Children's Cognitive Performance." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, no. 26 (2010): 11733-1738.


Burdick-Will, Julia, Jens Ludwig, Stephen Raudenbush, Robert Sampson, Lisa Sanbonmatsu, and Patrick Sharkey. "Converging Evidence for Neighborhood Effects on Children's Test Scores: An Experimental, Quasi- Experimental, and Observational Comparison." In Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances, 225-276. Greg Duncan and Richard Murnane ed. New York: Russel Sage, 2011.


Milkman, Katherine L., Modupe Akinola, and Dolly Chugh. "Temporal Distance and Discrimination An Audit Study in Academia.Psychological Science 23, no. 7 (2012): 710-717.


Voting and Political influence


Butler, Daniel M., and David E. Broockman. "Do Politicians Racially Discriminate Against Constituents? A Field Experiment on State Legislators." American Journal of Political Science 55, no. 3 (2011): 463-77.


Broockman, David E. "Black Politicians Are More Intrinsically Motivated to Advance Blacks’ Interests: A Field Experiment Manipulating Political Incentives." American Journal of Political Science 57, no. 3 (2013): 521-36.


Enos, Ryan D. “What the Demolition of Public Housing Teaches us About the Impact of Racial Threat on Political Behavior.American Journal of Political Science (forthcoming).


Gilliam, Franklin D., and Shanto Iyengar. "Prime Suspects: The Influence of Local Television News on the Viewing Public." American Journal of Political Science 44, no. 3 (2000): 560-73.



List, John A. "The Nature And Extent Of Discrimination In The Marketplace: Evidence From The Field." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 119, no. 1 (2004): 49-89.


Ayres, Ian. "Fair driving: Gender and race discrimination in retail car negotiations." Harvard Law Review (1991): 817-872.


Intersection with gender discrimination


*** Need more here


Intersection with LGBTQA identities


*** Need more here


Intersection with class


Klag, Michael J., Paul K. Whelton, Josef Coresh, Clarence E. Grim, and Lewis H. Kuller. "The Association of Skin Color With Blood Pressure in US Blacks With Low Socioeconomic Status." JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 265, no. 5 (1991): 599-602.


Freeman, Jonathan B., Andrew M. Penner, Aliya Saperstein, Matthias Scheutz, and Nalini Ambady. "Looking the Part: Social Status Cues Shape Race Perception." PLoS ONE 6, no. 9 (2011): e25107. Accessed December 16, 2014. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025107


Penner, Andrew M., and Aliya Saperstein. "How Social Status Shapes Race." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, no. 50 (2008): 19628-9630.





Dovidio, John F., Louis A. Penner, Terrance L. Albrecht, Wynne E. Norton, Samuel L. Gaertner, and Nicole J. N. Shelton. "Disparities And Distrust: The Implications Of Psychological Processes For Understanding Racial Disparities In Health And Health Care."Social Science & Medicine 67, no. 3 (2008): 478-86.



Sen, Maya, and Omar Wasow. In Press, 2016. “Race as a 'Bundle of Sticks': Designs that Estimate Effects of Seemingly Immutable Characteristics”, Annual Review of Political Science 19 (forthcoming). Copy at



Paluck, Elizabeth Levy, and Donald P. Green. "Prejudice reduction: What works? A review and assessment of research and practice.Annual Review of Psychology 60 (2009): 339-367.


Implicit bias

Banks, Richard R., Jennifer L. Eberhardt, and Lee Ross. "Discrimination and Implicit Bias in a Racially Unequal Society." California Law Review 94, no. 4 (2006): 1169-90.


Racial profiling

Glaser, Jack. Suspect Race: Causes and Consequences of Racial Profiling. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.


Thanks to my lab group, Omar Wasow, Don Green, Devah Pager, Peter Aronow, Adam Pearson, and Alin Coman for contributions.